Briefly write Lord Ripon's reforms?,Evaluate Lord Ripon's contribution to the development of local self-government in India.,Lord Ripon's liberal laws, Lord Ripon's First Factory Act

 Briefly write Lord Ripon's reforms?

Lord Lytton was succeeded by Lord Ripon as Viceroy of India. Lord Ripon was a member of English Prime Minister Gladstone's Liberal party. His reign is particularly notable in the history of British rule in India for the establishment of peace and various reforms. As a pacifist and liberal ruler, he was strongly opposed to imperialist policies. He was the complete opposite of Lord Lytton in character and meditative ideas about administration. He was respectful of the aspirations of the people of India. He encouraged local self-government among the Indian people and adopted a policy of non-interference in industry. Thus Ripon won the hearts of the Indian people by his honest efforts and is remembered as one of the greatest rulers in the history of British rule.

His Reforms:

Lord Ripon's rule is famous for various reforms in the history of India. The notable reforms of his regime are discussed below:

Liberal Laws:

After Lord Ripon came to Calcutta as Viceroy, he remarked, "Judge me by my acts and not by my words." Judge me by my works, "don't judge me by my words." He observed an anti-British sentiment everywhere as a result of Lord Lytton's imperialist and repressive policies in India. Lord Ripon first attempted to pacify public opinion by amending Lord Lytton's objectionable laws. That is why he first repealed Lord Lytton's Press Suppression Act by Act No. 3 of 1882. He again gave freedom of expression to newspapers published in vernacular languages. Ripon's Act played an important role in keeping Indian public opinion calm.

First Factory Act:

In 1881, the first Factory Act was passed in India at the initiative of Lord Ripon. This Act prohibits the employment of children as young as seven years of age as factory workers. Children between the ages of seven and twelve were mandated to work a total of nine hours a day. Hazardous equipment is mandated to be surrounded by fences. Factory inspectors are appointed to monitor the proper implementation of this Act. Although the actual demands of the workers were not met by this act, it can be said that Ripon was the first to look into the problems of the factory workers.

Tariff and Revenue Reforms:

When Lord Ripon came as the Viceroy of India, the financial condition of the Government of India was very good. Due to this financial acumen he completed the free trade policy followed by Lytton. For the benefit of the common people, he abolished the duties on salt and other trade goods and abolished the income tax. He also tried to bring about permanent settlement changes.

Education Reforms:

Lord Ripon appointed a commission under the leadership of Sir William Hunter in 1882 to develop a modern education system for the people of India. In the commission's report:

1) It is recommended that the responsibility of setting up schools for primary and secondary education be entrusted to the local local boards, municipalities and corporations.

2) It is recommended that a portion of the provincial government revenue be spent on primary education.

3) The progress of secondary education and the effectiveness of the grant-in-aid system are expressed satisfaction.

4) Establishment of schools for vocational education ie commerce, technical education is recommended.

5) Deregulation of higher education is recommended.

6) Moral education in schools, women education and improvement of Muslim education are recommended. Most of the Hunter Commission's recommendations were accepted by the government.

Local Autonomy:

Lord Ripon was the main visionary of the autonomy of this country. He was the first to take the initiative to educate the public in greater political education by establishing true autonomy in this country. He said, “Persistence is the greatest teacher”. So if the people are given power and opportunity, they will definitely be able to manage their governance system well. He opined that there is a need to remove the bureaucratic interference in the work of local self-governing bodies by giving more power to them. If this is not possible then real self-governance will not be possible for the people of India. Ripon passed the Autonomy Proposal in 1882 to fulfill this objective. He asked the bureaucracy to give up the idea that Indians did not deserve autonomy. Lord Ripon's proposal states:

1) Local autonomy system should be introduced in every district.

2) Name of the district bodies will be Local Board.

3) The smaller the local board boundaries the better. It will establish direct communication with the representatives of the public.

4) The number of seats for employees in local boards will not be more. The Boards will be chaired by private individuals.

5) Government cannot interfere in the functioning of the boards. But the Boards shall have control over the imposition and collection of taxes on the people.

6) Non-official members shall be elected by the people.

7) Boards can be advised or instructed by the government.

8) If a local board fails to perform the duties assigned to it, the provincial government can cancel the illegal activities of the board. However, to cancel the board, the permission of the Government of India will be required.

9) Funds will be allocated to the Boards for carrying out their specific duties.

10) Boards will be entrusted with the responsibility of all philanthropic works like education, health, roads, lighting etc.

11) Public telephone in rural areasA union committee should be formed for vehicles.

During Lord Ripon's tenure great steps were also taken in the organization of the Peer Sabha. Before him Peer Sabhas were established in Calcutta, Bombay, Madras and other major cities.

Judicial Reforms:

Among Lord Ripon's various liberal reforms, the most notable and memorable is a bill called the "Ilbert Bill". The purpose of this bill was to eliminate the disparity between Indians and Europeans in judicial and administrative matters. According to the Feizdari Act of 1873, no Indian judge could try British or Europeans anywhere except in the Presidency town. Only Europeans by birth were entitled to administer this trial. Needless to say, this practice was terribly discriminatory and anti-racist. During Lord Ripon's rule, many veteran Indians rose to high ranks in the judiciary as a result of the Covenanted Service. But no Indian judge had the power to try European subjects under Feizdari law. Biharilal Gupta, a Magistrate of the Calcutta Presidency, drew the attention of the Government seeking a remedy for this discriminatory law.

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