The reason for the damage to the retina, how to understand the problem in the retina of the eye?, the cause of damage to the retina of the eye when the ultraviolet rays of the sun

 

The reason for the damage to the retina, how to understand the problem in the retina of the eye?, the cause of damage to the retina of the eye when the ultraviolet rays of the sun

The reason for the damage to the retina, how to understand the problem in the retina of the eye?, the cause of damage to the retina of the eye when the ultraviolet rays of the sun


Topic: Causes of retinal damage, how to understand retinal problems, causes of retinal damage when the sun's ultraviolet rays


The Wall Bureau: Black fungus has become another cause of panic in Corona. In many states including Maharashtra, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Odisha, black fungus infection has been detected in patients who have recovered from Corona. In most cases, patients with comorbidities with corona are the victims of this infection. But there are exceptions. Black fungus disease infects various organs of the body including lungs, brain, eyes, nose and throat. Among them, eye infection has become serious in some patients.


Dr. Debashis Bhattacharya, Chairman and Managing Director of Disha Eye Hospital, says that four patients from Jharkhand and Bihar have been diagnosed with infectious diseases of the retina. They are undergoing treatment. The eyes of these patients are bloodshot, red, swollen, and watery. Examination showed that all four had black fungus infection in their eyes. And because of that the retina is damaged. Dr. Bhattacharya says, the disease occurring in the retina due to black fungus infection is called 'Central Retinal Artery Occlusion' (CRAO). Vision becomes blurred in this disease. In severe cases, the patient may become blind.


What is black fungus infection? Who is having this disease?

Black fungus is a species of fungi in the genus Mucormycetes that can infect the human body. The disease caused by this fungal infection is called Mucormycosis. This fungus grows from rotting leaves, garbage, animal carcasses or excrement. Their molecules float in the air. Inhalation infects body cells. It easily enters the human body through the nose, mouth, and skin pores. If the body is weak and the immune system is reduced, then this fungal molecule can have a serious effect if it enters the body. This fungus mainly infects the lungs, eyes, kidneys and brain. From there it spreads to other parts of the body. If not treated at the right time, the disease can be fatal.


Doctor Babu says, HIV patients, diabetes mellitus, cancer, kidney disease sufferers are more prone to this fungal infection. Mucormycosis is more likely in patients who have undergone organ transplantation, patients with long-term cirrhosis, and malnourished patients. In most cases, it has been observed that corona patients with diabetes who have been given steroids, tocilizumab drugs or plasma therapy, oxygen therapy have a higher risk of black fungus infection. Of the four patients undergoing treatment in various branches of Disha Eye Hospital, two have diabetes, one is under control. None had steroid therapy, but one had oxygen therapy. All these four patients have been diagnosed with 'Central Retinal Artery Occlusion' disease.


What diseases of the retina identified by doctors?

Visual information reaches the optic nerve through the retina of the eye. High blood sugar damages the retina's tiny blood vessels. Sometimes the narrow blood vessels are torn. In that case, fluid leaks from the retina and the cells swell, which is called retinopathy. A black fungus infection causes the blood vessels in the retina to clot in narrow blood vessels. Blood clots and veins swell. Then there is pain in the eyes, the eyes become red and swollen, water starts falling. The name of this disease is 'Central Retinal Artery Occlusion'.


Doctor Babu says that if the blood starts to clot in the narrow blood vessels of the retina and it goes to the brain, then stroke will occur immediately. Diabetes and heart patients are at higher risk of this disease. But apart from this, such diseases of the retina can occur due to various reasons. As seen now in black fungus infections. In extreme cases of 'central retinal artery occlusion', the patient's vision can be completely lost. Or vision may become blurred. If it is not treated from the beginning, it becomes difficult to cure the disease.


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What symptoms can occur?

Pain in the eyes, swelling and redness of the eyes, constant watering.


Muscle pain on one side of the face.


Many people have mucormycosis with black patches on the nose and a rash.


Other symptoms of black fungus infection include – fever, dry cough, headache, shortness of breath, frequent vomiting, vomiting of blood as the disease progresses, loose teeth, gum infection, mood swings etc.


What to do to stay safe?

Diabetic patients should use Betadine 0.2% mouthwash during corona. Care should be taken not to spread the infection inside the mouth.


Clean, sterilized water should be used during oxygen therapy, not ordinary tap water.


Blood sugar should be controlled. Hyperglycemia should be controlled.


Glucose level should be checked regularly even after recovery from Covid.


Steroid use should be reduced. Caution should be exercised in patients on tocilizumab therapy. A doctor should be consulted before any anti-fungal therapy.


Question: What is the importance of retina and what is its function?


Answer: Retina is a screen at the very back of the eye. Just as the image is formed on the screen of the cinema, just as the image comes into the camera, inside the film, so the retina is the film of the eye. Here is where our picture is actually created.


Q: In which part of the eye is it located? What do we see in it?


Answer: It is not visible from outside. The eyes are like a round ball. If we imagine, from the front of the eye to the back wall, if we cut it completely, the back wall, along that wall, a thin screen is attached, this is the retina. Since the image is formed in the retina, we cannot see if it is damaged. Just like when the screen of the movie is folded, the image will not be formed, if there is a problem inside the retina, then the image will not be formed.


Q: What types of retinal diseases are common?


Answer: The most common retinal disease in the country, due to diabetes, is called diabetic retinopathy. Apart from this, high blood pressure causes some problems inside the retina of the eye. Apart from this, the retina can also be damaged due to congenital reasons. People who are myopic, meaning those who need glasses with a lot of minus power, can also often have problems inside the retina. Or sometimes due to injury, or due to aging some changes can occur in the retina.


Q: How do I know if my retina is fine? Or what kind of problem should I think is going to be a retinal problem?


Answer: There is a problem right here. The problem is that since the retina is deep in the eye, it is difficult for a layman to know if there is a problem with my retina or not. Yes, in some cases a person can catch his retina problem. As he suddenly wakes up in the morning, it seems that a shadow like a dark cloud has appeared in his eyes. i can't see A black curtain has come over some part of my field of vision. Then we will understand that retina problem. Older people sometimes notice that when looking at a white screen, there appears to be a shadow or patch of black somewhere in the middle. Then it must be thought that it could be due to one of the retinal reasons. In that case, whenever it seems like this, you should go to the doctor, to check the retina.


Q: What tests do you do to determine the extent of retinal damage?


Answer : How many steps are there in the test? First of all, we see how much a person's vision is damaged through some common tests. Some special tests that we do directly ourselves are that we enlarge the pupil of the eye. Because we know that we have to look inside the eyes. We magnify that gem through medicine to see that deep. We then use our special equipment to thoroughly check the retina inside the eye to see if there are any problems. In some cases it is not enough to see with the naked eye. In that case there are other tests, such as taking a picture inside the eye, OCT, which means scanning inside the eye.


We know that the retina has 10 layers. The thickness of a retina is 270 to 300 microns. Much less than a millimeter. So we do OCT to see if there is any problem in it. By doing OCT we can specify each layer separately. Just then we can assume the extent of the problem in any layer. In some cases there are eye angiograms, we do them.

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