How did the company establish dominance in Bengal between 1757 and 1765?

 How did the company establish dominance in Bengal between 1757 and 1765?

Bengal was a city full of wealth and natural beauty from the earliest times. There are accounts of many foreigners coming and going from early times to Bengal for its wealth and natural beauty. In this case, it can be seen that someone's intention was to record the history by appreciating the natural beauty of Bengal, someone's intention was how to bring Bengal under their control. In such continuity, a trade delegation came to India in 1600 with the order of Queen Elizabeth. This trade delegation later became the ruler of India in a change of state. As a result, the merchant's standard became the scepter. So it can be seen in history that those who were once candidates for favors from Indian landlords or kings later became entitled to distribution of favors or graces.

The context of the Company's dominance from 1757 to 1765 and the Company's dominance from 1757 to 1765 are as follows:

1. Wealth and wealth of Bengal: Among the provinces under the Mughal Empire, Bengal i.e. modern day Bengal (East and West), Bihar and Orissa were the richest areas. The industry here was advanced as well as leading in the production of agricultural products. The English East India Company from the beginning made huge profits through trade in Bengal. This profit raised the hopes of the British.

2. After Farrukh Shear's Farman Emperor Aurangzeb's death, a civil war broke out in the Mughal Empire. In 1713, Farrukh Shear, a grandson of Bahadur Shah ascended the throne of Delhi through a civil war. In 1714, an English envoy named John Sarman from Calcutta met the Mughal Emperor Farrukh Shear for commercial opportunities. Relying on the British, the Mughal emperor in 1717 issued a decree allowing English merchants to conduct free trade in Bengal, Madras and Bombay. The British were given the right to monopolize trade in Bengal only on the promise of an annual tribute of three thousand rupees, and the company was allowed to mint its own money at the Murshidabad mint. The company acquired the right to lease the area around Calcutta. Historian AA Farman called it the Mahasanad of the East India Company.

3. Siraj-English conflict: After the death of Nawab Alivardi Khan, many of the Nawab family could not accept the Nawab's gain of Siraj. Unable to do so anymore, Ghaseti Begum, Shaukat Jang wished for his downfall. So there was such unfavorable situation on one hand, on the other hand the company also forgot to congratulate the new Nawab. The Company disobeyed the Nawab's orders and proceeded to build Fort William. Raj Vallabh's son Krishnadas escaped to Calcutta with a lot of jewels and got the shelter of the British. The Nawab ordered the Company to hand over Krishnadas to him. But the company did not heed such orders. As a result, Siraj and the English were at odds. And in the midst of this dispute lay the seeds of success of the English.

4. War against the Nawab: When the British continued to disobey the Nawab's every order, the Nawab attacked Calcutta and expelled the British. After the fall of Calcutta, the British company was exposed. They advanced to confront the Nawab. Robert Clive deftly defeated Narab and forced the treaty of 'Ali Nagar. From this time, the English merchant was directly involved in the conspiracy to depose Siraj.

5. Nawab is a victim of conspiracy: Meanwhile, the Nawab's main amatyas are involved in a conspiracy to dethrone the Nawab. Chief among them, Mir Zafar of Sipahsala, was the main protagonist of the conspiracy. He resolved to oust the Nawab in alliance with the British to fulfill his ambitions. As a result, the path to British dominance is easier.

6. Deterioration of British relations with the Nawab: When the Nawab of Bengal became Murshid Quli, the relations with the British deteriorated. Because, the trading rights that the British got were very harmful to other foreigners. However, the Murshid Qulis and later Nawabs were somewhat subservient to the British. In the interest of the economic development of Bengal, the Nawab did not do anything with the English merchants to stop their business in the state, even though there were occasional disturbances. The British started evading the duties paid to the government by misusing the 'Dastak'. Moreover, the Nawab was not satisfied with the privileges enjoyed by the right to trade duty-free for a small annual sum.

7. Political Aims: For a long time there was an idea in the historical circles that the British did not desire the political rights of Bengal. This opportunity was given to them by the ruling group of Bengal and the British only accepted this opportunity. But modern studies prove that the British merchant class planned to take over Bangladesh politically at least during the time of Siraj-ud-Daulah. English relations with Siraj-ud-Daulah were not friendly from the beginning. Rather, the company's activities appeared to anger the Nawab.

8. Battle of Palashi About 32 kilometers from Murshidabad, the British declared war against the Nawab on the mere pretext of name. On 23 June 1757, the plan of the machinists succeeded in the war. At one point, Siraj-ud-Daulah was caught in the act of slaughtering, and on the orders of Mir Zafar's son Miran, Muhammadi Beg killed the Nawab. Thus ended the dramatic events of Palashi. As a result, the way to dominate the English company in Bengal was somewhat paved.

9. Powerless foreigners. British reinforcements in Bangladesh took place on the one hand by deposing the Nawab and Mir ZafarBy turning the English into chattels, as well as powerless the other European trading institutions. Before the Battle of Palashi in 1756, the British attacked the French trading post at Chandan Nagar, ending the rivalry of the French merchants. Again in 1759, the British defeated the Dutch merchants in the Battle of Bidera and took away the power of the Dutch. The English, however, declared war on the Dutch in the hope that the new Nawab, Mir Jafar, might join forces with the Dutch and oppose them.

10. Battle of Buxar: In the Battle of Buxar, Nawab Shuja-ud-Daula of Ayodhya and Mughal Emperor Shah Alam joined forces with Mir Kashim against the British. So by winning the battle of Boxer, the English merchants got the chance to dominate all of them. In fact, the British rule was firmly established in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa as a result of the victory in the Boxer War. Because, the Nawab of Bengal had no power to move freely from now on. He remained completely in favor of the British.

11. Civil gains of the company After the defeat of Mir Kashim in the battles of Katwa, Giriya and Udaynala, the British reinstated Mir Jafar as the Nawab of Bengal. After the death of Mir Jafar, his minor son Nazim-ud-Daula was placed in the masnad of Bengal. Besides, the ultimate strength of the company and the British was tested through the battle of Boxer. In addition, by an agreement signed between the English company and Nazim-ud-Daula on 20 February 1765, the Nawab of Bengal voluntarily surrendered the authority to all the English. Nazim-ud-daulah disbanded his army. Besides, the Nawab of Bengal will henceforth govern through a Deputy Subadar and that Deputy Subadar cannot be deposed without the permission of the Company. On the other hand, Mughal emperor Shah Alam II was given the diwanis of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa by the British, showing greed for money. Shah Alam was in financial trouble at that time. Thus, the British got the post of Diwan of Bengal on the condition of paying an annual revenue of 26 lakh rupees. Since then, the newly appointed Dewan of the English East India Company started collecting the revenue of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.

12. Mir Kashim and the English: After the battle of Palashi, the Nawabi of Bengal was won by the selfish and nationally unscrupulous Mir Zafar Ali Khan. But Mir Jafar also failed to solve the British financial deficit. So the British deposed Mir Jafar and appointed his son-in-law Mir Kashim as the Nawab of Bengal. After receiving the Nawabi, Mir Kashim, realizing the need of the British, took some measures which did not please the British. Mir Kashim shifted the capital of Bengal from Murshidabad to Munger. Moreover, he took initiative to build the Nawabi army in European style. A dispute with Mir Kashim arose over the misuse of 'adoption' by the English. Despite Mir Kashim's repeated warnings to the company officials, the British did not heed it. In this situation, Mir Kashim stopped the dry collection from the merchants and gave the right to do business without duty to all local and foreign merchants equally. As a result, the boxer's war was fought.

Conclusion: Therefore, it can be said that the company established the supremacy in Bengal in 1757 and succeeded in 1765 through civil gains. It can be seen that the company had to adopt many methods or strategies. So they first came to trade and later advanced to take over the ruling power by trading strategy. In this case, Lord Clive first contributed to the development of the company's condition. The dominance established by the Company in India under the leadership of Lord Clive lasted for almost 200 years.

Post a Comment

Previous Post Next Post